Incontinence related menopausal effects

Urinary incontinence refers to an inability to control the leakage of urine.

Types of Urinary Incontinence:

1. Overflow incontinence: Slow, minor leakage after urinating. This can occur when the urethra is blocked or when the bladder muscles fail to completely empty the bladder.
2. Urge incontinence: Also known as the overactive or spastic bladder, urge incontinence is leakage that results from a strong, immediate urge to urinate. This happens when a muscle spasm contracting the bladder overpowers the sphincter muscles that regulate the flow of urine through the urethra.
3. Stress incontinence: This is leakage that is caused by the physical stress of coughing, sneezing, laughing, or exercising. Stress incontinence is usually due to the deterioration of the tissues and muscles that support the urinary organs.
4. Mixed incontinence: Exhibiting symptoms of both urge and stress incontinence.

Symptomatology:

  • ​Urinating more often than normal
  • The urge to urinate, even if the bladder is empty
  • Feelings of pressure or discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • Pain or burning while urinating
  • The need to get out of bed to urinate several times a night
  • Urinating the bed while asleep

Common causes of Urinary Incontinence

  • Medical conditions & neuromuscular disorders
  • medication related
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Anatomical defects and fistulas
  • Pelvic organ prolapse​

Diagnosing Urinary Incontinence

  • ​History & Diary of symptoms
  • Pelvic exam
  • Stress test:Your doctor will have you cough with a full bladder to observe any leakage.
  • Post void residual volume test:After urinating and with the use of ultrasound or a catheter to measure the amount of liquid left in your bladder.
  • Dye test:To verify Fistulas or amount of leakage
  • Cystoscopy: flexible tube into your urethra to see inside your urinary tract and bladder.
  • Urodynamic testing​

Treatment Options:

  • Drinking less fluid, especially caffeinated drinks
  • Quitting smoking
  • Losing excessive weight (for overweight women)
  • Avoiding constipation, through diet changes and supplements
  • Treating stressors such as chronic coughing
  • removing adversley affecting medications
  • Treatment of underlying medical disorders
  • Physical therapy
  • Laser vaginal stress incontinence reenforcement
  • Hormonal treatment
  • Surgical approach and restoration of anatomy